Monday, January 20, 2020

big bang theory Essay -- essays research papers

  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The Big Bang theory states that all the matter that is in the universe was once in a very small amount of space with infinite temperature, pressure, and density. This theory is well supported and there are many reason for it’s support. One main reason is that no one really has a clue and The Big Bang Theory seems far fetched but more reasonable than any other ideas that there are out there. Some of the important thing to know about the big bang to understand are the beginning and the few seconds immediately after the actually bang. Also what generally has happened since the then. It is important to know theories of how it will end as well, and to get a well rounded opinion, I feel it useful to have some of the other possibilities outlined. The best place to start is the beginning.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  One of the things that cosmologists are not yet sure about is the Big Bang itself. It is not yet possible to give a definitive answer to the questions: what was the Big Bang and why did it happen? However, there has been a great deal of speculation recently on this subject, and it may not be long before a definitive, or almost definitive, answer will be declared. For the moment we will simply take the Big Bang as it is given, a huge explosion in which time and space began expanding. It is important to realize that space itself originated in the Big Bang. IT is tempting to think of the universe before the Big Bang as being a vast, infinite, expanse of empty space, like the space between the galaxy clusters today. The Big Bang, then, would have flung matter into this nothingness, but this is not what happened. Space itself was created during the Big Bang. Einstein and all subsequent cosmologists have viewed space as being as real as matter. In fact, physicists now v iew empty space as a sea of â€Å"virtual particles†. So space is now expanding along with the galaxies and stars that exist with it and has been expanding ever since the Big Bang.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Actually, cosmologists actually have a clearer picture of what the universe was like during the period right after the Big Bang than they are about the universe today. The reason for this is universe was very simple, in comparison, then. The universe was filled with a hot soup of particles like a hot gas trapped in a box. The photons in the cosmic microwave bac... ...re is only so much energy available in the universe for the building of new stars. Just as the law of thermodynamics tell us that a closed universe can’t go on forever, so they tell us that new stars cannot go on being created forever in an open universe. Eventually the last star will die out and will not be replace. The proton will eventually decay. After about a billion billion billion billion years, all atoms will fall apart, and matter as we know it will cease to exist. The universe will be a vast sea of leptons and messenger particles.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  One main, but unsupported, theory is that the universe was created by God. This theory is not excepted in the scientific community because in has no evidence to back it up. That doesn’t mean it isn’t a possibility. There are a few other theories of the creations of the universe, but no other theories are as excepted as the big bang theory. Some of the important stuff to know that I have covered is the eras right after the Big Bang, the Big Bang it self and a few of the possible endings to the universe. I hope with this information you can have a better understanding of the universe, its creation, and it’s endings.

Sunday, January 12, 2020

Constitutional Law and European Integration

There are few cases that rival Factortame in being concurrently substantively clear and decisive, and perplexing as to its full impact. The scope of the change to the UK constitution that has been instigated by it and other European Court of Justice decisions has been conceptualised as ranging from a ‘legal evolution’ to ‘revolution’. Although some theories are more convincing than others, each faces its own weaknesses.However, notwithstanding the conclusion of this particular speculative debate, the processes of European integration has undoubtedly quickened the pace at which UK Parliament and courts as part of a globalised world have had to squarely confront these constitutional changes, especially the departure from Parliament’s stronghold over the constitution. A Diceyan view of the UK constitution is no longer compatible with the current relationship between UK and EU law.It was decided in Factortame and confirmed in Equal Opportunities Commissio n, that the implications of the European Communities Act 1972 s. 2(4) is that EU law has supremacy in the case of clashes between EU and national laws. Within the orthodox view that Parliament is absolutely sovereign, inconsistencies between Acts of Parliament are to be dealt with by applying the doctrine of explicit or implied repeal to give effect to the later Act which is simply another illustration of how no Parliament can bind its successors.It would never have been open to national courts to declare provisions within primary statute incompatible with EC law either temporarily or permanently as it is today. However, so long as UK remains a part of the EU, EU law will prevail when inconsistencies arise and any derogation from this position will have to be done expressly and unequivocally. Therefore, even if the current position of Parliamentary sovereignty cannot clearly be defined, Factortame and EOC alone emphasise the unworkability of a Diceyan view of Parliamentary sovereign ty in an European context.A radical but yet convincing argument that conceptualises the constitutional implications suggests that, EU law is able to place a substantive limit on Parliament’s law making authority on overlapping areas because being a member state has partially changed the rule of recognition of Parliamentary sovereignty. Although this necessitates presupposing Parliamentary sovereignty is a legal principle, not a purely political one, it seems justified because instead of accepting Parliament to be sovereign merely by its existence, it allows for a justification based on normative rguments. This is important considering that the UK is a modern democracy and intrinsically different to the state it was in when the doctrine of Parliamentary sovereignty was originally developed. Being a legal phenomenon, the scope of Parliamentary sovereignty evolves through the judgments of the court which provides a more balanced and legitimate decision than considering just a po litical aspect because the political realities are still considered but are weighted against other principles such as the rule of obedience to statutes.Furthermore, courts are gradually developing the idea that the authority of Parliament to make law is something that is subject to, and therefore controllable by constitutional law. For example, in the domestic case of Anisminic, the scope of Parliament’s authority to confer on public authorities powers which are not subject to judicial review was sharply limited. Thus, the effect of ECJ decisions on the constitution has been to develop it to a stage where Parliament is no longer sovereign at times when, and only when, inconsistencies between EU and national law occur within a field where both laws operate.On the other hand, Sir William Wade would argue that ‘constitutional revolution’ rather than a mere evolution has resulted. However, this argument is not only at odds with Lord Bridge’s judgement but lack s plausibility in itself. He explains that the courts have acted unconstitutionally and shifted their allegiance because Parliamentary sovereignty being a ‘rule of recognition’and a solely political norm, is a constitutional fixture which may only be ‘diminished’ as a matter of practical politics.There is a real difficulty in accepting this because it would suggest judicial whim may reverse a commitment that was reached democratic consensus among all branches of government and wider society through public referendum. This formidable weakness of Sir William Wade’s argument supports viewing Parliamentary sovereignty as, at least partly, a legal concept. Although the theory that it is possible for the EU to place substantive limits to Parliamentary sovereignty accommodates the ‘voluntary’ contractual argument and ‘functional requirement of EU’ arguments that Lord Bridge presents, it is not without limitations either.It fits wel l with Lord Bridge’s alternative reasonings because they suggest that Parliament does have the power to limit its own powers and that the present conflict should be tackled on principled bases. This is important because legal phenomenon arise out of case law and albeit sparse, his judgment was the only one to address the topic. However, the persuasiveness of this argument is reduced by the fact that it simply leads us to another equally difficult question of what legal means set the width of its powers.The judges themselves seem to be in disagreement amongst each other about this as Lord Hope says ‘measures enacted by Parliament’ itself whereas Laws LJ says the unwritten constitution as interpreted by the judges which seems legitimate but in practical terms, leaves everything just as uncertain. So far only the implications of ECJ case law has been discussed but there are other elements to European integration such as the doctrine of direct effect and the European Union Act 2011 which have affected the development of the UK constitution.These developments suggest that the â€Å"new view† is the most plausible representation of Parliamentary sovereignty today because referendum locks and the possibility for individuals to present a case in national courts on law derived from sources other than Parliament present limitations on Parliamentary sovereignty but not in the substantive sense discussed above. Proponents of the â€Å"new view† view that ultimate sovereignty remains with Parliament but it may have to conform to certain manner and form limitations.The appealing factor of this model is that it also accommodates for the limitations that Human Rights Act proposes on Parliamentary legal authority as well. Yet it is problematic in that the EU has explicitly stated in s2 of the ECA that on at least an EU level, Union law is regarded as supreme and this theory fails to encompass this dimension of the relationship between domestic and EU law. Most importantly, it accentuates how the increasingly multi-layered nature of the constitution must be taken into account in the broader debate.The holding of a point of absolute power faces pressure from outside as well as inside the nation. When the broader question of whether we should be edging away from political and towards a more legal constitution is considered in light of the multi-tiered constitutionalism arising from the Parliamentary Acts of 1911 & 1949, Human Rights Act, Devolution as well as EU membership, it would seem that to maintain a wholly political view of Parliamentary sovereignty in any context would be to deny reality.However, anything more exact requires us to assess what balance between adaptability and elasticity from maintaining a political constitution, and protected rights and principles from a legal constitution will provide the checks and balances necessary in dealing with the legal and political challenges of today. Due to declining publ ic reputation of Parliament and diminishing respect for political process generally, as well as the aim of Parliamentary sovereignty having originally been to secure the broadest possible basis for ensuring democracy and legitimacy, we may not have to be so uneasy about adopting a more legal constitution.The UK constitution must embrace the emphasis it has always placed on a dynamic experience and once again, like with the case of devolution, make a smooth transition before political repercussions manifest themselves. ——————————————– [ 1 ]. R v Secretary of State for Transport ex parte Factortame Ltd [1990] ECR I-2433 [ 2 ]. Paul Craig, ‘Britain in the European Union’ in The Changing Constitution (7th ed, 2011) pg120 [ 3 ]. HWR Wade, ‘Sovereignty- Revolution or Evolution? ’ [1996] 112 LQR 568 [ 4 ].R v Secretary of State for Employment ex parte Equal Opp ortunities Commission [1995] 1 AC 1 [ 5 ]. HWR Wade, ‘The Basis of Legal Sovereignty’ [1955] CLJ 174 [ 6 ]. Paul Craig, pg121 [ 7 ]. 17th century –Glorious Revolution, Bill of Rights [ 8 ]. TRS Allan, ‘Parliamentary Sovereignty: Law, Politics, and Revolution’ [1997] 113 LQR 447 [ 9 ]. Mark Elliott and Robert Thomas, ‘Public Law’ (2011, Oxford) pg334 [ 10 ]. Anisminic v Foreign Compensation Commission [1969] 2 AC 147 [ 11 ]. Wade, ‘Sovereignty- Revolution or Evolution? ’ [ 12 ]. HLA Hart, ‘The Concept of Law’ (1996, Claredon Press) [ 13 ].Wade, ‘Sovereignty- Revolution or Evolution? ’ [ 14 ]. UK European Communities membership referendum 1975 [ 15 ]. Lord Bridge in Factortame [ 16 ]. Paul Craig ‘Britain in the European Union’ in Jowell and Oliver (eds) TheChanging Constitution (7th edn, Oxford, 2007) pg 121 [ 17 ]. Jackson v Attorney-General [2005] UKHL 56 [ 18 ]. Thoburn v Sunderland Ci ty Council [2002] EWHC 195 [ 19 ]. Sir I. Jennings, The Law and the Constitution (1959) ch. 4 [ 20 ]. Jonathan Sumption ‘Judicial and Political Decision-making: The Uncertain Boundary’ [2011] Judicial Review 301

Saturday, January 4, 2020

College Accreditation Research Paper - 1796 Words

Marketing Research Accreditation Research Project April 25, 2011 Being accredited is how an institution is recognized as a university having a legitimate degree program. The value of the degree you receive is based upon accreditation, college ranking, and the perception of the institutions image in organizations and society. As my problem statement I would like to find out what the value of accreditation is, what it takes to become accredited, maintain accreditation, and why some degrees from accredited institutions are not recognized by other institutions and business organizations. Some research objectives I would like to achieve would be to find out if the loss of credits in the transfer from school to school is due to different†¦show more content†¦According to an article written in the New York Times, and quoted in a higher education watchdog website, â€Å"scores of students are dropping out of the University of Phoenix, the largest chain of for-profit colleges in the country, fed up because their academic experiences bear no rese mblance to the promises that were made to them by duplicitous recruiters. Most of these students are leaving hugely indebted. Contributing to the poor graduation rate, current and former students who studied at University of Phoenix campuses or online complained of instructional shortcuts, unqualified professors, and recruiting abuses† (Burd, 1). There are some business organizations that do not recognize them as a credible education system. For example, I worked for the insurance company Geico, and they offered tuition reimbursement if you attend an accredited university. However because of their unorthodox style of teaching, and not being a traditional four year university, they did not recognize them as a legitimate university and would not reimburse any tuition. All of the accrediting organizations are overseen by an organization called CHEA, the Council for Higher Education Accreditation. CHEA ensures that all the regulations and standards are uniform throughout the agencies, and based on their definition, all the organizations shouldShow MoreRelatedSenior Vice President For Accreditation And Quality Assurance At Letourneau University ( Letu )1666 Words   |  7 PagesThis letter is sent in response to your announcement of a search for an Associate Vice President for Accreditation and Quality Assurance at LeTourneau University (LETU). The announcement of this search drew my attention because I am familiar with LETU’s institutional effectiveness, assessment, and accreditation efforts, and I believe my background and experience provide an excellent fit with the credentials you seek. I have a keen interest in promoting LETU’s mission of engaging â€Å"learners to nurtureRead MoreLincoln Memorial University ( Lmu )942 Words   |  4 PagesIn 2005, Lincoln Memorial University (LMU) initiated the pursuit of Substantive Change from the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools (SACS) with the intent to initiate two advanced degree programs, the Doctor of Education (Ed.D) and the Doctor of Osteopathy (D.O.). The administration of LMU, following Procedure One of the SACS Commission of College’s (SACSCOC) Substantive Change for Accredited Institutions Policy, provided a letter stating this intent on April 6, 2005 to the Executive DirectorRead MoreAccreditation For Physical Therapy Education Curriculum1346 Words   |  6 PagesCommission for Accreditation for Physical Therapy Education Curriculum as Viewed Through the Lens of Social Meliorism Nancy Smith ECI 700 Curriculum Theory North Carolina State University The Commission for Accreditation for Physical Therapy Education Curriculum as Viewed Through the Lens of Social Meliorism Curricula can be viewed from different perspectives in order to critically evaluate how they might best influence students, institutions, and faculty. The purpose of this paper is to evaluateRead MoreEducation in The United States and Great Britain: A Comparison1761 Words   |  7 Pagesaccredit and monitor qualifications in schools and colleges. 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McGee jmcgee@wmcarey.edu 228-342-8288 April 26, 2017 Abstract This paper will examine five emerging trends associated with the future of higher education. Within the United States higher education has become commercialized. Obtaining a college degree has beenRead MoreWhy I Am A Psychologist, The State Of Kentucky One Must First Obtain Licensure1057 Words   |  5 PagesLicensure Paper I have wanted to be a psychologist most of my life. In order to become a licensed psychologist in the State of Kentucky one must first obtain licensure. According to The Kentucky Board of Examiners of Psychology (2007) the Kentucky Revised Statutes, KRS 319.005 states that no one by law is allowed to use the title of psychologist, practice as a psychologist, or in any way cause others to believe that they possess credentials to do so, unless they have been licensed by the board.Read MoreThe Common Language Of Leadership By Corey Seelmiller And Thomas Murray1701 Words   |  7 Pagesby Corey Seelmiller and Thomas Murray, which can be found in the November 2013 edition of the Journal of Leadership Studies, the authors conducted qualitative research in an attempt to (a) define and understand the competencies needed by college students to engage in leadership in their respective career fields and (b) to use the research findings on leadership competencies in order to develop a program that will encompass all fields of academic disciplines. 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Thursday, December 26, 2019

Attack Ad Effectiveness - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 7 Words: 2168 Downloads: 3 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Advertising Essay Type Analytical essay Did you like this example? In the 2012 U.S. Presidential Election Attack ads were a major part of the 2012 presidential election campaign in the U.S. In fact, the Washington Post reports that of the $404 million that was spent on TV ads in favour of Barack Obama, 85% ($343.4 million) was spent on negative ads, while of the $492 million spent on TV ads in favour of Mitt Romney, 91% ($447.72 million) was spent on negative ads (Andrews, Keating, Yourish, 2012). Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Attack Ad Effectiveness" essay for you Create order The attack ad strategies of both candidates were very similar. In fact, the top ten U.S. states in which the candidates spent campaign funds on negative TV ads were exactly the same, with Florida, Virginia, and Ohio being the top three respectively (Andrews, Keating, Yourish, 2012). Given that the vast majority of money spent on TV ads was spent on negative ads, it is reasonable to believe that there must be some efficacy to such ads. In this project, scholarly research on the effectiveness of attack ads in the 2012 U.S. presidential campaign is reviewed in order to answer the question when and in what circumstances were the attack ads effective during this election? Interests Group Involvement and Attack Ads Recent trends in media and campaign ad funding may contribute to the high number of attack ads in the 2012 U.S. presidential campaign, as well as the campaigns high ratio of negative-to-positive ads. While the percentage of negative ads coming directly from the campaigns of the candidates increased significantly from 2008 to 2012, the majority of the increase in negative ads is attributable to the rise in campaign ads that were not funded by the candidates campaigns (Fowler, 2012). In fact, 60% of presidential campaign ads in 2012 were funded by groups other than presidential campaign groups (Fowler, 2012). This is a huge increase from 2008 in which 97% of ads were funded by presidential candidate campaigns (Fowler, 2012). The number of ads from interest groups increased by 1,100% from 2008 to 2012, while the number of TV ads from political parties increased from zero in 2008 to almost 10,000 in 2012 (Fowler, 2012).   Moreover, in 2008, ads from presidential candidates were only 9% negative, while those from interest groups were 25% negative (Fowler, 2012). These numbers quickly changed by 2012, in which 53% of ads from the presidential candidates themselves were negative and 86% from interest groups were negative (Fowler, 2012). The increase in the involvement of special interest groups in advertisement campaigns only partially explains the increase in attack ads in 2012. The change in media and the rise of social media may be able to explain partially both the increase in special interest group participation and the increase in attack ads. Polarized Parties and Polarized Media Several recent changes in news media may have affected not only the number of political attack ads, but also the efficacy of such ads. One major change in news media is that it now covers political ad campaigns much more than in the past. In fact, from 1960 to 2008, the percentage of political news articles and segments that covered political ads rose by over 500% (Geer, 2012). On one hand, the increased coverage of political ads may be because of the increase in attack ads. After all, attack ads tend to be more controversial and news-worthy than positive ads. On the other hand, however, the increase in attack ads may be, in part, the result of an increase in media coverage of negative ads. Geer (2012) argues that news media now cover negative ads so extensively that they have given candidates and their consultants extra incentive to produce and air them (p. 423). There may or may not be a mutualistic relationship between attack ads and media coverage of political ads. Nevertheless , the clear increase in both may help to increase the efficacy of attack ads, given that such ads may receive more media coverage. If it is the case that the medias willingness to cover negative political ads more than positive ads does, in fact, encourage more attack ads, there is not a necessary increase in the efficacy of such ads. Geer (2012) holds that the increase in media coverage on attack ads does not mean that such coverage is in any way influential to voters; that is, it is not typically the goal of news organizations to influence voters. Thus, while an attack ad may receive more public attention because of the media, the increase in attention may not be necessarily favourable or unfavourable to any candidate. Another recent change in news media is its partisanship. Now, many U.S. news outlets are partisan or are considered to be partisan by viewers. For example, just as Fox News is considered to be a conservative news organization that promotes Republican politicia ns over Democratic politicians, MSNBC is considered to be a liberal news organization (Jacobson, 2013). The polarization of the media may actually be the result of the polarization of the current two-party federal political system in the U.S. (Sides Vavreck, 2014). In the last decade, the democratic and republican political parties in the U.S. have moved further away ideologically, resulting in substantial gridlock in Congress (Sides Vavreck, 2014). Such disagreement and polarization may, on one hand, lead to an increase in attack ads. Attack ads may seem more effective when there is such a large ideological divide between the parties. On the other hand, such political polarization has likely contributed to the polarization of news outlets (Sides Vavreck, 2014), which, in turn, further encourages attack ads. Even with the increase in polarized parties and media outlets, attack ads may not be an effective means to sway voters towards or away from particular candidates. Attack Ad Rationale and Efficacy A meta-analysis of research studies on the effects of political attack ads reveals that attack ads tends to be more memorable and stimulate more knowledge about political campaigns than positive campaign ads (Lau, Sigelman, Rovner, 2007). Despite these effects, campaign attack ads were not found to be effective at convincing individuals to either change their votes or to vote in an election (Lau, Sigelman, Rovner, 2007). Moreover, the results of the meta-analysis revealed that attack ads have significant negative effects on individual perceptions of the political system, trust in government, and public mood (Lau, Sigelman, Rovner, 2007). A more recent meta-analysis conducted by Fridkin and Kenney (2011) found that in some cases campaign attack ads can be effective at lower voter evaluations of targeted candidates. However, Fridkin and Kenney (2011) also found that in certain circumstances, attack ads lower voter evaluations of the attacking candidates. For an attack ad to be effective, the researchers found that the attack ad must bring up a relevant issue that is reinforced with fact or must present the opposing candidate as being uncivil in some significant way. Otherwise, the attack ad may have no effect or even a negative effect on voters. Additionally, Fridkin and Kenney (2011) found that effects from attack ads on voter evaluations of candidates tend to be very small. Social Media and Attack Ads The rise of social media has dramatically changed the political advertising landscape. The 2012 presidential campaign features another strong social media showing by President Obama, who outspent every other candidate in social media advertising in his successful 2008 presidential run (West, 2013). Social media allowed Obama to reach key demographics much more effectively than general television commercials allowed (West, 2013). Social media allows candidates to contrast a higher number of messages and aim specific messages at target audiences effectively (West, 2013). This is extremely important during a time in which there are so many issues of disagreement between the two major U.S. political parties and in which transparency is highly valued (West, 2013). Social media outlets serve as a significant platform for all political ads and their content, altering the ways in which we tend to think about politics and the media. Another important aspect of social media and attack ads is that social media acts as a platform for social discussions on attack ads. Just as the news media tends to cover attack ads more than positive political ads, members of social media sites tend to openly discuss attack ads more than positive political ads (Hong Nadler, 2012). Thus, the rise of social media may have further encouraged the use of attack ads during the 2012 U.S. presidential election. Even so, as with news media, there is no significant evidence that the increase in news media coverage generated from attack ads alters voter behaviour or attitudes (Hong Nadler, 2012). As a result, the effectiveness of attack ads cannot be confirmed. A Deeper Look into the 2012 Election and its Attack Ads The 2012 presidential election featured Mitt Romney, who spent significantly more on attack ads than Barack Obama (Andrews, Keating, Yourish, 2012). Moreover, a greater ratio of Romneys television ads were attack ads (Andrews, Keating, Yourish, 2012). Nevertheless, Obama was the victor in the election, as well as the popular vote. The results of the 2012 presidential election, however, do not suggest that attack ads are ineffective. Incumbent candidates are more likely to win elections, including presidential elections, in the U.S. than non-incumbents (Sides Vavreck, 2014). Thus, the efficacy of the attack ads used by either candidate cannot be determined based on the outcome of the election alone. Of the six most memorable attack ads of the 2012 U.S. presidential election, West (2013) argues, five were attack ads. The first is an attack ad from Obama about Romneys Swiss Bank account. This attack ad may have been effective with moderate voters because it singled Romney out as having a major interest in big business, as opposed to improving the middle-class (West, 2013). Additionally, the ad had high relevance to a real issue, which meets the Fridkin and Kenney (2011) criteria for an ad that may be effective at reducing favourability with a particular candidate. The second ad is from Romney and targeted Obamas failure to bring unemployment levels to acceptable levels (West, 2013). This ad targeted a real issue, while providing a positive aspect, which is that Romney has the business experience to create jobs as President. The third attack ad is also from Romney and claimed that Obamas recent tax plan would raise taxes on the middle class (2013). This can be viewed as a direct rebuttal to Obamas attack ad and consequently addresses a real and relevant topic. The fourth memorable attack ad in this campaign is the attack from the American Crossroads, which is a Super Political Action Committee (PAC). The attack targets Obamas celebrity status (West, 2013 ). This attack fails to address any real issue and, thus, should not be viewed under the Fridkin and Kenney (2011) criteria as being able to influence voter favourability toward Obama. Finally, the Priorities USA Super PAC targeted Romneys capitalization on Bain Capital, again indicating that Romney does not have the interests of the middle-class in mind, but instead has the interests of the upper-class in mind. This attack ad addresses a highly relevant issue. For the most part, the attack ads of the 2012 U.S. Presidential Election were likely to be somewhat effective in decreasing voter favourability. While there is no strong evidence that attack ads actually sway voter decisions or voter turnout (Lau, Sigelman, Rovner, 2007), there is evidence that voter favourability of a candidate can be decreased through political attack ads when such ads address a relevant issue (Fridkin Kenney, 2011). Moreover, attack ads tend to generate considerably more media attention than positive political ads. While this may seem, prima facie, to benefit candidates who put out attack ads, there is no evidence that such media coverage influences voter behaviour. Thus, the logic behind one of the primary reasons for attack ads may be flawed. Nevertheless, the 2012 U.S. Presidential Election featured a number of attack ads, many of which were on-topic and relevant, others were off-topic and irrelevant. The actual effectiveness of these attack ads is not currently known, though they likely, at the very least, increased media coverage for the targeted candidates. References Andrews, W., Keating, D., Yourish, K. (2012) Mad Money: TV Ads in the 2012 Presidential Campaign. The Washington Post. Accessed on 15 October 2015 from: https://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/special/politics/track-presidential-campaign-ads-2012/ Fridkin, K. L., Kenney, P. (2011) Variability in Citizens Reactions to Different Types of Negative Campaigns. American Journal of Political Science, 55(2), pp.307-325. Fowler, E. F. (2012) Presidential Ads 70 Percent Negative in 2012, Up from 9 Percent in 2008. Wesleyan Media Project, May, 2, pp.119-136. Geer, J. G. (2012) The News Media and the Rise of Negativity in Presidential Campaigns. PS: Political Science Politics, 45(03), pp.422-427. Hong, S., Nadler, D. (2012) Which candidates do the public discuss online in an election campaign?: The use of social media by 2012 presidential candidates and its impact on candidate salience. Government Information Quarterly, 29(4), pp.455-461. Jacobson, G. C. (2013) How the Economy and Partisanship Shaped the 2012 Presidential and Congressional Elections. Political Science Quarterly, 128(1), pp.1-38. Lau, R. R., Sigelman, L., Rovner, I. B. (2007) The Effects of Negative Political Campaigns: a Metaà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬?analytic Reassessment. Journal of Politics, 69(4), pp.1176-1209. Sides, J., Vavreck, L. (2014) The Gamble: Choice and Chance in the 2012 Presidential Election. Princeton University Press. West, D. M. (2013) Air Wars: Television Advertising and Social Media in Election Campaigns, 1952-2012. Sage.

Wednesday, December 18, 2019

Analysis Of H.j s Article A Journal Call Question

H.J. McCloskey Published an article in a journal call Question One in February of 1968, he named it â€Å"On Being an Atheist†. In McCloskey’s article, he states a very compelling explanation in why he thinks the everlasting disputes of God’s existence fails. My paper is responding to McCloskey’s arguments with a theistic worldview. In McCloskey’s article, he ventured to explain how atheism is by far more rational, as well as more comfortable than theism is. McCloskey used the word â€Å"proof† instead of â€Å"theory† to add deceptive power to this argument of his. Unfortunately, there are many of his theories that can be and are accepted as a truth, but they cannot be absolutely proven. Nothing in this world can be proven one†¦show more content†¦The Cosmological Argument as previously discussed, is the existence of the universe and â€Å"cosmos† is the direct suggestion that God exists. This can be and is often indicated as the â€Å"first-cause argument†. This is because they believe that God is the first reason for the cause of the existence of the universe. One of McCloskey first complaints is that people are not suitable to believe that the universe needs a cause. McCloskey finds this to be true simply because, it would require a root for the universe whic h in turn, would also obligate a source for God. He then continues to profess that even if the cosmological argument is able to facilitate us to hypothesize the existence of God, then there would be no reason to hypothesize that God has to be omniscient, omnipotent, and many more. There are living things in our world that have no clue how they came to be. Essentially everything that happens has to be caused by something, which would mean that the actualization of our universe has to be contingent on a cause. He also stated that he believes that the cosmological argument, â€Å"does not entitle us to postulate an all-powerful, all-perfect, uncaused cause,â€Å" (McCloskey, 51). It seems that McCloskey believes that it is not necessary to believe in an â€Å"uncaused cause† merely because the earth exists. McCloskey feels as if the only outcome that we can takeShow MoreRelatedInclusion Practices in Education Essay example4520 Words   |  19 Pagesresources, education new s and feature articles, and background on education materials. Visit the OnWEAC Home Page at www.weac.org to see the latest news, services and educational resources. This article was updated March 15, 2007 Inclusion remains a controversial concept in education because it relates to educational and social values, as well as to our sense of individual worth. 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Tuesday, December 10, 2019

Importance of Institutional Investors-Free-Samples for Students

Questions: 1.Does his Optimistic outlook for his Cash Position appear to be correct? 2.what would Elis ending Cash Balance be? 3.Argue why are Treasury bills a favorite place for Financial Managers to invest excess cash, as Compared to other Options? Your answer must be supported with examples and academic citations 4.Why are Institutional Investors Important in today's Business world? Your answer must be supported with examples and academic citations. Answers: 1.In the given case, Eli Lilly is showing optimistic outlook for his cash position, since he is expecting it to be doubled in this year from $600,000 to $1,200,000. It can be seen that the net assets will remain at 50% of total sales and his firm is going to enjoy 8% return on total sales. Thus, being his cash balance started with $ 120,000 in the current year, further cash balance or deficit for the year end is computed below. Actual sale of previous year = $ 600,000 Actual net asset remains 50% of the actual sale = $ 600,000 * 50% = $ 300,000 Expected sale of next financial year = $ 1,200,000 Expected net asset will be 50% of the expected sale = $ 1,200,000 * 50% = $ 600,000 Assumed asset is 50% of sales increase. In this case, increase in sales is $ 600,000, hence total asset is 50% of increased sale = $ 300,000 Since Eli Lilly has started with cash of $ 120,000 therefore rest asset is assumed to be fixed asset amounted to $ 180,000 ($ 300,000 - $ 120,000). Thus, it can be said that optimistic outlook of Eli for his cash balance is positive, because his expected sales is double of previous years sales. 2.In this case, if there would be no increment in sales, the ending cash balance is computed below. Actual sale of previous year = $ 600,000 Actual net asset remains 50% of the actual sale = $ 600,000 * 50% = $ 300,000 Therefore, assumed total asset would be 50% of total sales, that is $ 300,000 * 50% = $ 150,000, out of which his beginning cash balance is $ 120,000. Therefore, his ending cash balance would be $ 30,000. Thus, based on the analysis of both the case examples, it can be said that prudence concept of accounting is to be maintained. Where anticipated loss to be booked first and anticipated gain should be ignored (Chase Rice, 2014). Here in this situation, Eli has been found highly optimistic about his expected increment in sales and started to dream for buying luxury car and house, without even realizing that the increment in sales might not happen in future. Thus, Eli should realize the actual sale first and then brag for luxurious things. 3.Treasury bills are offer a very low risk in the investment and to earn guaranteed return and this makes it more attractive to many investors. In treasury bills, the par value and the purchase price is interest, where option for purchasing T-Bills to the investors lies at auction and then it is discounted at par value. (Bodie, Kane Marcus, 2014). This bill has maturity period for less than one year and is generally sold up to denomination of $1000. However, the significant disadvantage of treasury bills is that it offers very low return in comparison of other investment opportunities in the market. (An Zhang, 2013). Apart from this T-bills are associated with liquidity and absorbs amount of invested in business. These are issue for three-time periods basically, such as 91-day bill, one year note and 182 days bills (Krishnamurthy Vissing-Jorgensen, 2012). Some of the features of T-bills are mentioned below- Eligibility: Any individuals, company, trust, bank, financial institutions, firms, insurance company can make investment in treasury bills Minimum bid: It requires minimum bidding price but have the capacity to yield higher return Issue price: One of the most important features of T-bill is that it is issued by government at discount rate but at the time of redemption it is redeemed at par (Nyawata, 2013) Repayment: As mentioned earlier, the T-bills are repaid by government at par Availability: These financial instruments are highly liquidated instrument and can be easily available from primary and secondary market As financial managers are entrusted with the role of ensuring efficient financial position of company, they take investment decision focusing on three key areas such as tenure of investment, finance and dividends (Moser, 2017). Financial managers are stressed upon buying T-bill because within a short time period it provides maximum return (Nixon Burns, 2012). In T-bills, the return is secured and guaranteed and have capacity to immune against risk like inflation, recessions and depressions. Treasury bill yields more return to financial investors than that of other securities due to various reasons. Some of the reasons are mentioned below- Nature of treasury bills: Earning from investment in Treasury bill has indirect relationship with the price. It can be observed from the secondary market, when demand for bond is higher in market, their bidding price also rise, but in case of Treasury bill, their coupon rate remains lower as compared to higher prices of other investments in the market. As financial investors prefer low risk, they are likely to make investments in T-bills, because this protects investors against market risk in uncertain financial condition of economy (Dungey Hvozdyk, 2012). Risk-free treasuries: Like all bonds, T-bills also provide return to investors at the time of maturity. As T-bill is issued by government there are least chances that government of economy will fail to meet their obligations related to debts (Bodie, Kane Marcus, 2014). Interest rate on Treasury bill and other bonds: Interest received on other bonds like loans, short-term investment, deposit accounts is always compared with interest rate received on treasuries. At present, it is seen that interest rate offered on T-bills is similar to bond issued by several corporate bonds (Huang Huang, 2012). In order to evaluate by applying which policy financial investor invest in T-bills, the following example is taken to explain the scenario. For instance, interest rate on T-bill is 5% and on any other corporate bond is also same but an investor always selects T-bills because they are safer bond as compared to any other bonds also the expected return remains unaffected due to market fluctuations. Easier liquidity facility: T-bill is easily convertible into cash due to their liquidity nature. In addition to this even if the time period does not elapse, an investor can withdraw the invested amount. Not associated with any transaction cost: No transaction cost is associated with T-bills like other investments. Apart from this, a broker also does not charge any brokerage for purchasing T-bills (Jagric et al. 2015). Thus, from above explanations it can be concluded that T-bills are best option to use in portfolio by a financial investor as it carries almost no or minimum risk. Apart from this, another reason for which financial investor opts for making investment in T-bill is that it does not have any provision for call. Thus, at the economic slowdown when corporate or municipal bonds are called, treasury investors can easily configure the holding period of security. 4.The term Institutional investors refer to any individual person or an organization which trades large shares of equities for lower commissions and preferential treatment. They face less regulation as compared to other investors because it is assumed that they are knowledgeable enough to protect themselves. Some example of institutional investor includes commercial banks, hedge funds, mutual funds, and endowment funds (McCahery, Sautner Starks, 2016). As compared to retail investor they have extensive knowledge about investment options and have specialized knowledge because they are one of the largest forces for encouraging demand and supply in security market. Before analyzing importance if institutional investor in business world it is necessary to understand the difference between retail investors and institutional investors and their role in market. Difference between retail investors and institutional investors: In case of retail investors, they are bound to pay brokerage fees, distribution cost and marketing cost for every transaction carried out. However, institutional investors make transaction independently and avoid payment of marketing and distribution cost (McCauley, 2012). Both retail and institutional investors invest in stock, options, bonds and future contracts but some markets are basically for institutional investors only due to nature of market securities and risk. Such market includes forward market and swaps. Role of institutional investors Institutional investors reduce information asymmetries: It is seen in financial market that flow of asymmetric information generates price discount. In order to understand this concept better, an example of car market is shown here. Rational buyers of car assume that they have better information about quality of car offered in sale and due to this situation, they will buy car which have lower quality (Dhiman Raheja, 2017). So, the good quality of car seller will be driven out from the market. Therefore adverse selection of product through flow of asymmetric information is observed, it is also seen in stock market as well. It creates negative impact on share market but this negative impact is reduced by institutional investors by deploying book building method in stock market (Helwege, Intintoli Zhang, 2012). Increases liquidity: Liquidity refers to ease of asset to convert into cash without affecting its actual value. Prevalence of less liquidity in stock market reduces price of shares in stock market and affects negatively. If stocks are not regularly traded in market its underlying value will remain uncertain and thus liquidity will decrease as investors will take less interest on stock market (Manconi, Massa Yasuda, 2012). But research conducted by economist revealed that liquidity in stock market is still going on due to presence of institutional investors. Presence of institutional investors affects cost of equity and stock price in market and also assists in reducing tax bill paid by company from the global context. Improve corporate governance: Corporate governance implies developing performance of company operating in market. In order to develop structure and performance of company in market it is necessary to oversights of managers present in respective company. Thus, if shareholders or institutional investors of company remain dissatisfied with corporate government of company they will deploy two methods to improve corporate governance (Basak Pavlova, 2013). They will either sell shares or raise the voice for showing their dissatisfaction which as a result will enhance companys performance in market. From the above discussion importance of institutional investors in todays world has been drawn below- Firstly, these investors have huge amount of cash and can easily finance large projects for economic development of companies (Nixon Burns, 2012). Apart from this, company can utilize the money to build their respective company financially strong. Second, they are entrusted with large power when they invest large amount of fund in company. The board of director of respective company gives importance to their decision based on their investment capacity. Thirdly, majority of institutional investors control stock market of country and thus they have the ability to control stock market (Jagric et al. 2015). Thus, they expand their activity areas to trade in overseas market and make the economy of country strong. Fourthly, institutional investors control corporate governance of company by regulating and mitigate the agency problems (An Zhang, 2013). They stress upon management of company to pay interest to the profitability of shareholders of company and address their problems by exercising their bargaining power. Lastly, they play important role in allocation of capital in different companies by regulating corporate governance. Moreover, they monitor the risk by providing proper information about stock market. References An, H., Zhang, T. (2013). Stock price synchronicity, crash risk, and institutional investors.Journal of Corporate Finance,21, 1-15. Basak, S., Pavlova, A. (2013). Asset prices and institutional investors.The American Economic Review,103(5), 1728-1758. Bodie, Z., Kane, A., Marcus, A. J. (2014).Investments, 10e. McGraw-Hill Education. Chase, A. F., Rice, P. M. (Eds.). (2014).The Lowland Maya Postclassic. University of Texas Press. Dhiman, B., Raheja, S. (2017). Does personality traits and emotional intelligence influence investment decisions of investors?.Asian Journal of Research in Social Sciences and Humanities,7(7), 99-110. Dungey, M., Hvozdyk, L. (2012). Cojumping: Evidence from the US Treasury bond and futures markets.Journal of Banking Finance,36(5), 1563-1575. Retrieved from https://www.repository.cam.ac.uk/bitstream/handle/1810/236114/wp39.pdf?sequence=1 [Accessed on 22nd July 2017] Helwege, J., Intintoli, V. J., Zhang, A. (2012). Voting with their feet or activism? Institutional investors impact on CEO turnover.Journal of Corporate Finance,18(1), 22-37. Retrieved from https://jacobslevycenter.wharton.upenn.edu/wp-content/uploads/2014/06/14.12.Keim_.pdf [Accessed on 21st July 2017] Huang, J. Z., Huang, M. (2012). How much of the corporate-treasury yield spread is due to credit risk?.The Review of Asset Pricing Studies,2(2), 153-202. Retrieved from https://archive.nyu.edu/bitstream/2451/26484/2/02-40.pdf [Accessed on 22nd July 2017] Jagric, T., Podobnik, B., Strasek, S., Jagric, V. (2015). Risk-adjusted performance of mutual funds: some tests.South-eastern Europe journal of Economics,5(2). 1- 12. Krishnamurthy, A., Vissing-Jorgensen, A. (2012). The aggregate demand for treasury debt.Journal of Political Economy,120(2), 233-267. Manconi, A., Massa, M., Yasuda, A. (2012). The role of institutional investors in propagating the crisis of 20072008.Journal of Financial Economics,104(3), 491-518. Manconi, A., Massa, M., Yasuda, A. (2012). The role of institutional investors in propagating the crisis of 20072008.Journal of Financial Economics,104(3), 491-518. Retrieved from https://www.newyorkfed.org/medialibrary/media/research/conference/2013/fire_sales/Paper_Yasuda_Ayako_et_al.pdf [Accessed on 21st July 2017] McCahery, J. A., Sautner, Z., Starks, L. T. (2016). Behind the scenes: The corporate governance preferences of institutional investors.The Journal of Finance,71(6), 2905-2932. McCauley, R. N. (2012). Risk-on/risk-off, capital flows, leverage and safe assets. Moser, J. (2017). Failed Delivery and Daily Treasury Bill Returns.Evolution,5, 17. Nixon, B., Burns, J. (2012). The paradox of strategic management accounting.Management Accounting Research,23(4), 229-244. Nyawata, O. (2013). Treasury bills and/or central bank bills for absorbing surplus liquidity: the main considerations.Journal of International Commerce, Economics and Policy,4(02), 135-145.

Tuesday, December 3, 2019

Pierre De Fermat Essays - Integer Sequences, Additive Number Theory

Pierre De Fermat Pierre de Fermat Pierre de Fermat was born in the year 1601 in Beaumont-de-Lomages, France. Mr. Fermat's education began in 1631. He was home schooled. Mr. Fermat was a single man through his life. Pierre de Fermat, like many mathematicians of the early 17th century, found solutions to the four major problems that created a form of math called calculus. Before Sir Isaac Newton was even born, Fermat found a method for finding the tangent to a curve. He tried different ways in math to improve the system. This was his occupation. Mr. Fermat was a good scholar, and amused himself by restoring the work of Apollonius on plane loci. Mr. Fermat published only a few papers in his lifetime and gave no systematic exposition of his methods. He had a habit of scribbling notes in the margins of books or in letters rather than publishing them. He was modest because he thought if he published his theorems the people would not believe them. He did not seem to have the intention to publish his papers. It is probable that he revised his notes as the occasion required. His published works represent the final form of his research, and therefore cannot be dated earlier than 1660. Mr. Pierre de Fermat discovered many things in his lifetime. Some things that he did include: -If p is a prime and a is a prime to p then ap-1-1 is divisible by p, that is, ap-1-1=0 (mod p). The proof of this, first given by Euler, was known quite well. A more general theorem is that a0-(n)-1=0 (mod n), where a is prime to n and p(n) is the number of integers less than n and prime to it. -An odd prime number can be expressed as the difference of two square integers in only one way. Fermat's proof is as follows. Let n be prime, and suppose it is equal to x2 -y2 that is, to (x+y)(x-y). Now, by hypothesis, the only basic, integral factors of n and n and unity, hence x+y=n and x-y=1. Solving these equations we get x=1 /2 (n+1) and y=1 /2(n-1). -He gave a proof of the statement made by Diophantus that the sum of the squares of two numbers cannot be the form of 4n-1. He added a corollary which I take to mean that it is impossible that the product of a square and a prime form 4n-1[even if multiplied by a number that is prime to the latter], can be either a square or the sum of two squares. For example, 44 is a multiple of 11(which is of the form 4 x 3 - 1) by 4, therefore it cannot be expressed as the sum of two squares. He also stated that a number of the form a2 +b2, where a is prime b, cannot be divided by a prime of the form 4n-1. -Every prime of the form 4n+1 is accurate as the sum of two squares. This problem was first solved by Euler, who showed that a number of the form 2(4n+1) can be always showen as the sum of two squares, of course it was Mr. Pierre de Fermat. -If a, b, c, are integers, a2 + b2= c2, then ab cannot be a square. Lagrange solved this. - The determination of a number x such that x2n+1 may be squared, where n is a given integer which is not squared. Lagrange gave a solution of this also. -There is only one integral solution of the equation x2 +4=y3. The required solutions are clearly for the first equation x=5, and for the second equation x=2and x=11. This question was issued as a challenge to the English mathematicians Wallis and Digby. -No basic values of x, y, z can be found to satisfy the equation xn+yn=zn; if n is an integer greater than 2. This thesis has achieved extraordinary celebrity from the fact that no general demonstration of it has been given, but there is no reason to doubt that this true. -Fermat also discovered the general theorem that was on the guess that a number can be found into the product of powers of primes in only one way. These were some interesting things that Mr. Fermat did in his life. During Mr. Fermat's life many things happened as world events. First Ludolph Van Ceulen died, there is a site dedicated to this long-ignored mathematician, who spent his entire life, approximating Pi to 35 places. Then Blaise Pascal lived